Before we can begin to write serious programs in c, it would be interesting to find out what really is c PROGRAMMING language and how it came into existence and how does it compare with other computer languages. In this article, we would briefly outline these issues.
FOUR IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF ANY LANGUAGE:
- It stores data,
- It operates upon this data,
- How it accomplishes input and output
- how it lets you control the sequence of execution of instructions in a program.
WHAT IS C LANGUAGE?
C is a programming language developed at AT & T’S bell laboratorY of UNITED STATE OF AMERICA IN 1972. It was written by Mr.Dennis RITCHIE. IN THE LATE seventies C began to replace the more familiar languages of that time like PL/L, ALGOL, etc.No one pushed C.It wasn’t made the “officials” Bell labs language. Without any adS, C’s reputation spread AROUND THE ORB and its pool of users grows drastically. RITCHIE surprised when he knows that so many programmers preferred C TO older languages like FORTRAN OR PL/I, OR the newer ones like pascal and APL. But that’s happened.
why c seems so popular?
It is very simple and easy to use language as we know the newer language can not survive more than a decade but this language is surviving for three decades and vanishes every language.
But still, people think that c++, java +and c# take place of c language but it’s completely wrong because there are many reasons why c is so important at the beginning:
These are several reasons for this:
- I think that nobody can learn C++ or java directly. THIS is because while learning these languages we have many things like objects, inheritance, classes, exception handling, polymorphism, templates, references, etc. LEARNING these difficult and complicated concepts when an individual is not even comfortable with the basic language elements. Hence everyone should first learn all the language elements very thoroughly using C language before migrating to C#, C++ and java or python. It will waste your time and demotivate you to learn again any skill so we also have to follow the procedure.
- C#, JAVA, c++ make use of a principle called OOPS(OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE) TO organize the programs. OOPS HAS lots of advantages but still, to access this properly you have to know the basic c programming and their elements.
- The other good reason why should we start c programming language first is that, as we know java and c++ based tools and frameworks have evolved over the years but still, the importance c is unchallengeable, While using these frameworks and tools you will require the core c elements.
- POpular operating systems like windows, Linux, UNIX are still written in C. C is one of the fast( speed of execution) language, moreover, the device driver programs are also written in C.
- Common consumer devices like washing machines, microwave ovens, and digital machines are getting smarter by the day. This cleverness comes from a microprocessor(which processes the data), an operating system, and a program embedded in these devices. These programs need s a fast speed and have to work on a limited amount, so theY are also written with the help of C.
Getting started with C.
Communicating with a pc involves speaking the languages the computer understands, which instantly rules out English as the language of communication with the pc. However, there is a close analogy between learning the English language and learning c language. As we all know the classical method of learning English that is first we learn alphabets and then making of words similarly in c language.
constants, variables, keywords
constants:- Constants in C are the fixed values that are used in any programs in c or any other programming language. The value of constant remain the same during the entire coding. They are also called literals. It can be any of the data types.
variables:- FOR any programming language A variable is nothing but a name given to a storage area that our programs can manipulate. It has a specific type, which determines the size and layout of its memory; the range of values that can be stored within that memory; and the set of operations that can be applied to it.
keywords: In any programming language Keywords are reserved, predefined words used in programming that have special meanings to the compiler. It is part of the syntax and they cannot be used as an identifier.
WHAT ARE THE IMPORTANT TOPICS IN C LANGUAGE?
The basic concept in C : – (like operators in C, looping- if-else, data types, do-while, while, for)
- pointer, recursion, arrays, function, string, sorting, searching, file handling and another important thing is Data structure in c ( queue, stack, linked list, etc).
2.C language concept, syntax, data types, different types of loops and usage, pointers.
3.The lifetime of a variable? – ( ex: global & static variables have lifetime from start to end of the program. like we have to know for stack & heap variables)
- Data memory model:
static area – static & global variables stored here
stack area – stack variables stored here ( it will expand & shrinks when the program is executed).
4. How the memory leak is happening with an example (we can explain it with malloc() and free() functions).
5. The function is a very important part of C Language. With the help of Function, Programming is very easy to understand and write. So there are some key points to remember when dealing with C Language Function :
KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER WHILE USING FUNCTIONS:
- A Function gets called when the Function name is followed by a semi-colon(;)
- “recursion”(in which function call itself).
- A Function can be called from another Function, but a Function cannot be defined in another function.
- A Function can be called any number of times.
- The order in which the Functions are defined in a Program and the order in which they get called need not necessarily be the same.
- Any Function can be called from any other Function.
- A Function is defined when the function name is followed by a pair of braces in which one or more statements may be present.
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